Rode tendered his resignation as prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life after he turned 76 in September of last year.
The resignation was accepted by Pope Benedict XVI on Tuesday, according to the Vatican's daily Bulletin.
The pope in turn appointed Archbishop of Brasilia Joao Braz de Aviz as the new prefect of the congregation dealing with institutes and societies of consecrated life (including orders and religious congregations and secular institutions).
Rode had held the key Vatican post since 11 February 2004. The former Ljubljana archbishop (1997-2004) remains a cardinal, a lifetime position, to which he was elevated by the pope in March 2006.
He also stays on as a member of five Vatican congregations, public broadcaster Radio Slovenija reported.